In the January 6, 2017 issue of the Journal of Mammalogy, Bradley Bergstrom in his peer-reviewed article “Carnivore conservation: shifting the paradigm from control to coexistence,” presents data from a range of professional perspectives including wildlife biology and management, ecology, social science, ethics, law, and policy. The conclusion is that nonlethal methods of preventing depredation of livestock by large carnivores may be more effective than lethal methods. If one studies coyote biology, this clearly makes sense. About the most adaptable species in North America, coyotes can adjust their reproductive cycles in response to stress. Over -hunting or the killing of the breeding alpha pair, will result in juveniles maturing faster and litter size increasing to compensate for pack losses. In addition, the loss of the alpha pair will change pack behavior and cause greater aggression toward livestock and domestic animals. In other words, coyotes become more aggressive and more numerous if over-hunted. The intelligent response by wildlife managers should be to promote coexistence and educate farmers about nonlethal means of protecting livestock. To read the full article, click Here.